Common Test Factors


Measurement of chlorine in the field is relatively easy. The fact that chlorine can be easily detected and measured makes chlorine a favorite water sanitizer for those concerned with the safety of water supplies, public and private pools, and other sources or reservoirs. Chlorine concentrations in the range of 0.1 to 0.4 parts per million are usually maintained in municipal supplies, while ranges from 1 to 3 ppm are used in both pools and spas.


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Water Hardness

Hard water is water that has high mineral content (as opposed to "soft water"). Calcium is the most common mineral associated with water hardness. While hardness is not generally a health hazard it can pose serious problems in industrial settings, where water hardness is monitored to avoid costly breakdowns in boilers, cooling towers, and other equipment. In domestic settings, hard water is often indicated by a lack of suds formation when soap is agitated in water, and by the formation of limescale in kettles and water heaters. Wherever water hardness is a concern, water softening is commonly used to reduce hard water's adverse effects.

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pH is one of the most common analyses in soil and water testing. An indication of the sample’s acidity, pH is actually a measurement of the activity of hydrogen ions in the sample.

pH measurements are reported on a scale from 0 to 14, with 7.0 considered neutral.  Those solutions with a pH below 7.0 are considered acids, and those between 7.0 and 14.0 are designated bases. The pH scale is logarithmic, so a one unit change in pH actually reflects a ten fold change in the acidity.  For instance, orange juice, pH 4, is ten times more acidic than cottage cheese, which has a pH of 5.


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Turbidity – Clarifying Low Level Measurements

by James W. Egan, Jr, PhD.

In the past 10 years, the analysis of turbidity has become far more than just a measure of water clarity. Now, low level turbidity analysis is becoming the method of choice for protection against emerging pathogens such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia. By assuring proper water filtration, risks from a variety of undesirable contaminants in our nation’s water supplies can be reduced.



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What it is Turbidity?

The definition of Turbidity is the cloudiness or haziness of a fluid caused by suspended solids that are usually invisible to the naked eye. The measurement of Turbidity is an important test when trying to determine the quality of water. It is an aggregate optical property of the water and does not identify individual substances; it just says something is there.

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